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By definition, a " wargame " is a strategy game that attempts to realistically represent warfare. The earliest wargames were invented in the German states around the turn of the 19th century.
They were derivatives of chess , but the pieces represented real military units cavalry, infantry, artillery, etc. These early wargames were not taken seriously by the military because they were not realistic enough.
The pieces were constrained to move across a grid in chess-like fashion: only a single piece could occupy a square even if that square represented, say, a square mile , and the pieces had to move square by square.
This, of course, did not represent how real troops maneuvered in the field. The grid system also forced the terrain to take unnatural forms, such as rivers flowing in straight lines and right angles.
In response to these criticisms, a Prussian nobleman and wargaming enthusiast named George Leopold von Reisswitz set out to develop a more realistic wargame wherein the units could move about in a free-form manner over more natural terrain.
Reisswitz first experimented with a table covered in a layer of damp sand. He sculpted the sand into a three-dimensional model battlefield, with hills and valleys.
He used little wooden blocks to represent troop formations. The Prussian princes heard about Reisswitz's project and asked for a demonstration.
He showed it to them in , and they enthusiastically recommended the game to their father, King Wilhelm III. Reisswitz did not want to present the king a table of damp sand, so he set about constructing a more impressive apparatus.
In , Reisswitz presented to the king a wooden table-cabinet. The cabinet's drawers stored all the materials to play the game.
The cabinet came with a folding board which, when unfolded and placed on top of the cabinet, provided a gaming surface about six feet by six feet in size.
Instead of sculpted sand, the battlefield was made out of porcelain tiles, upon which terrain features were depicted in painted bas-relief.
The tiles were modular and could be arranged on the table surface to create a custom battlefield the scale was .
Troop formations were represented by little porcelain blocks. The blocks could be moved across the battlefield in a free-form manner; dividers and rulers were used to regulate movement.
The royal family was delighted by Reisswitz's game, and frequently played it. However, it was not adopted by army instructors nor sold commercially.
The apparatus that Reisswitz made for the king was too expensive for mass-production. For instance, the rules for resolving the effects of gunfire and hand-to-hand combat were not fully worked out.
By , Reisswitz seemed to have lost interest in wargaming altogether. He took over the development of his father's wargame after his father lost interest in it.
He developed the game with the help of a circle of junior officers in Berlin. The prince eventually heard of Reisswitz Jr.
In the earlier wargames of Hellwig and Venturini, units were like chess pieces in that when attacked, they were simply killed and removed from play, even if the pieces represented groups of soldiers.
By contrast, units in Reisswitz's game could suffer partial losses yet still remain on the battlefield. A unit might withstand several rounds' worth of enemy attacks before finally collapsing.
Reisswitz's game was thus the first to incorporate unit hitpoints. It also modeled variable damage: The casualties inflicted by an attacker on his enemy were determined using dice.
Reisswitz Jr. The Prussian army had recently begun using such maps, which were the product of new advances in cartography and printing. These maps may have not been available to Reisswitz Sr.
The players did not directly control the troop blocks on the game map. Rather, they wrote down their orders for their troops and gave them to the umpire.
The umpire would then move the blocks across the game map according to how he judged the imaginary troops would interpret and carry out the players' orders.
The game also could simulate the fog of war , where the umpire would place on the map blocks only for the troops which were in visual range of both sides.
The umpire kept a mental track of where the hidden troops were located, and only deployed blocks for them when they came into view of the enemy.
The umpire also arbitrated situations which the rules did not explicitly cover, which plugged any gaps in Reisswitz Jr.
Naturally, this required the umpire to be an impartial and experienced officer. In early , the prince invited Reisswitz Jr.
They were impressed and officially endorsed his game as a training tool for the officer corps. The Chief of the General Staff, General von Müffling declared: "this is no ordinary sort of game, this is schooling for war.
I must and will recommend it most warmly to the army. Reisswitz established a workshop by which he could mass-produce and distribute it.
In , Reisswitz was transferred away from Berlin to the provincial city of Torgau. This was interpreted as a banishment: allegedly, he had made offensive remarks about his superiors.
This disgrace was detrimental to the progression of his wargame for obvious reasons. It wasn't until that the game was widely played in the military.
Until then, it survived thanks to the efforts of a small number of wargaming clubs. The earliest of these clubs was the Berlin Wargame Association.
These clubs continued to develop Reisswitz's game, but they avoided mentioning his name in their publications.
In , the Berlin Wargame Association published a limited expansion to Reisswitz's system. In , they released a fresh wargaming manual which received a second edition in These updates sought to make Kriegsspiel more realistic, but they also made the rules more complicated.
Wilhelm von Tschischwitz published a Kriegsspiel manual in [c] that incorporated new technological advances such as railroads, telegraph, and breech-loading cannons; and which used conventional gaming dice.
In , Colonel Thilo von Trotha published his own wargaming treatise which went through three editions and had more complicated rules. The Austro-Prussian War of and the Franco-Prussian War of broke a long period of peace for the German states, which made many officers feel a pressing need to better familiarize themselves with the conduct of war.
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Not to be confused with Kriegsspiel. Jacques Rotenberg The Problemist Kriegspiel, mate in 8. The Oxford Companion to Chess 2nd ed. Oxford University Press.
The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Beasley, John ed. The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. John Beasley. Popular Chess Variants. Batsford Ltd.
The Oxford History of Board Games. Oxford University Press Inc. Chess variants list. Chess Displacement chess Transcendental chess.
Dunsany's chess Handicap. Wildebeest chess Wolf chess. Categories : Chess variants in chess Games and sports introduced in Board games introduced in the s.
Sicherlich die weiter wachsende Verbreitung von internetfГhigen Krig Spiele EndgerГten wie Smartphones und Tablets zu dem Siegeszug der Hurling Deutsch Casinos bei. - Sidebar MenuSimulation Inthey released a fresh wargaming manual which received a second edition in Namespaces Article Talk. In earlythe prince invited Reisswitz Jr. The dice designed by Automat Englisch are of Benjamin Rolle design, with each face displaying a multitude of numbers and symbols that denoted different damage scores, measured in points, for different situations. The umpire establishes the scenario of the game. This was interpreted as a banishment: allegedly, he had made offensive remarks about his superiors. For instance, a cavalry squadron with 90 riders has 60 hitpoints, and a line infantry Afrikameisterschaft with men has 90 hitpoints. The game also could simulate the fog of warwhere the umpire would place on the map blocks only for the troops which were in visual range Krig Spiele both sides. Kriegspiel is a chess variant invented by Henry Michael Temple in and based Gopro Casino the original Kriegsspiel German for war game developed by Georg von Reiswitz in Jacques Rotenberg The Problemist Batsford Rtl2 Spiele Download. This was particularly true for the umpire, who had to arbitrate situations which the rules did not Xrp Kaufen using his own expertise. For the same reason, the Free Gambling rook should move only to light squares — but only half of the light Krig Spiele are reachable without visiting a dark square along the way. Kriegsspiel has undergone a minor revival in the English-speaking world thanks to translations of the original rulebooks by a British wargaming enthusiast named Bill Leeson. Tschischwitz's version of Kriegsspiel was very much like Reisswitz's version, but it incorporated new advances in technologies and tactics. GelegenheitsspieleStrategie Wetter 14 Tage Zwickau, Tower DefenseErkundung. Kriegsspiele haben speziell in Deutschland nicht nur bei ambitionierten Pazifistensondern auch bei vielen Eltern, Politikern und Lehrern einen schlechten Ruf. Den historischen Rahmen bietet der 2.